Violence Prevention and Strategies
Violence has emerged as one of the intractable aspects of various communities across the United States. Although the various concerted efforts from the federal and state governments have been allocated to crime prevention and reduction, the lack of sufficient attention and commitment from specific quarters, especially complementary to the law enforcement agencies, has significantly contributed to the exponential rise in crime across various communities. The notion that abundant resource is imperative to tackle crime has compelled the Federal Government to allocate various resources to addressing and preventing crime within the United States. The magnitude and diverse nature of the crime are outstanding evidence of its multiple dimensions and deep-rooted sources within society. Hence, a comprehensive approach, which encapsulates multifaceted agencies within both levels of the government, community leaders, and civil society groups, is necessary for combating crime through strategic and effective crime prevention strategies. In-depth research focusing on law enforcement agencies and practical approaches to reducing crime within society have underlined the essence of linking and synthesizing information from related fields. Specifically, a comprehensive analysis and blend of details from crime prevention strategies, human aggression, patterns in violence prevention, and various methods of government prevention agencies are necessary for comprehending the underpinning tenets of the fundamental trends of crime within society.
Violence Prevention and Intervention
- According to Sumner, Mercy, Dahlberg, Hillis, Klevens, & Houry (2015), sufficient evidence-based research studies have affirmed the preventability of violence. Grounded in such research studies, pursuing the relevant approaches to tackling crime is essential for its overall reduction within society. For instance, a paradigm shift on the underlying conditions that promote violence is vital within the community. For example, the decline and subsequent elimination of factors promoting violence within schools, homes, and neighborhoods is a practical approach to combatting crime within society. Through such eradication approaches, a concerted effort by law enforcement agencies effectively limits the rise in crime within the community.
- Capacity building and community mobilization toward eradicating and combatting crime is a practical approach to battling crime within the community. For example, domestic violence has taken an exponential trend, an aspect that has motivated various research studies by both governmental and nonprofit organizations. To empower the community through capacity building and community organization, the community needs to understand the findings and recommendations from such research studies. Such an approach will improve the implementation strategies and reduce the community’s crime rate. Additionally, a well-established system, which provides a collaborative framework for both government and non-government institutions within the communities, will ensure that such initiatives accomplish the intended objectives of empowering the communities and ensuring capacity building.
- Enhancing resilience, understanding, preventing, and addressing community concerns about crime are practical strategies effective in eliminating crime within society. For example, trauma, a subsequent outcome of crime, is a significant detriment affecting the fundamental tenets of tranquility within a society. Research by Sumner et al. (2015) has underpinned the essential perspectives of addressing trauma as a significant detriment that affects society. Additionally, Sumner et al. (2015) illustrate how a strategic partnership between the government and not of profit organizations can organize essential programs to enhance resilience within a community, especially after destructive criminal activities. Also, Riedel & Welsh (2015) has recommended a concerted effort by policymakers to address community trauma to prevent long-term detriments of crime within society.
- Even though various government agencies have specifically allocated the battle against crime solely to the criminal justice system and law enforcement agencies, research by Riedel, M., & Welsh (2015) has illustrated a public health approach in an attempt to comprehend the underlying tenets of crime within society. Through the establishment of various prevention institutes, a collaborative strategies approach can play an outstanding role in identifying the criminal activities that threaten the optimal fabric of life within the community. Wintermute (2015) has affirmed the relevance of public health research on crime within the community. This multifaceted approach has led to the recommendation of different systems, practices, policies, and changes that effectively combat crime within society. Even though various advocacy groups have suggested increased cooperation and in-depth research on crime through a public health approach, ardent supporters and strict adherents to the operational facets original justice system and law enforcement agencies have broadly preferred limited involvement of public health research in understanding crime within the society.
Theories of Human Aggression and Violence
- Various research studies have focused on the fundamental aspects of theories of human aggression and violence within society. Specifically, most such research studies have an overall and common finding that violence and aggression have existed throughout human history. However, research by Wintermute (2015) illustrates that a majority of the evidence-based conclusion have acknowledged the application of advanced psychological research approaches that researchers have applied in examining behavioral sciences hence comprehending the cultural, developmental, interpersonal, and genetic causes of violence. Nonetheless, Braga & Weisburd (2015) lamented the limited application and integration of various research findings and recommendations for tackling crime within society.
- Understanding the basic tenets of human aggression and violence is imperative in accurately interpreting various theories postulated to offer a proper explanation regarding crime in society. For instance, before examining the existing theories, it is essential to understand the narrow sphere of aggression, which does not necessarily emerge in the physical sense. Despite different forms of violence apart from the physical nature, the specific category accounts for the most abundant ingredient of violent crime within the community.
- Just Worlders is one of the prominent theories that attempt to illustrate the existence and frequent occurrence of crime within society. According to this specific theory of crime, the world is a great social environment in which every individual deserves to satisfy their needs and wants. Additionally, the theory postulates the experiences of an individual as a profound and related reflective nature of their actions. For example, the theory explains that good people are naturally rewarded while the deviants face detrimental and far-reaching societal consequences. Owing to its broader perspectives, the Just World theory is further categorized into two major sections: the General Just World and the Personal Just World. Understanding the imperatives of the specific approach is essential in combating crime within society.
- Apart from the Just Worlders Theory, the Scientific Theory is an additional theoretical attempt, which has implored to explain the existence and the occurrence of crime within society. The Scientific Theory of Crime encapsulates a set of relevant definitions, linking constructs, and systematic propositions, which relies on various variables in illustrating the phenomena of crime. The mandatory prerequisites of interrelated variables and reliable scientific research are indispensable in postulating a scientific theory. According to the Scientific Theory, findings of various research studies have emphasized free will as one of the causatives pertinent to crime within society. In the case of general and specific deterrence, Cesare Beccaria, one of the prominent contributors to the Scientific Theory of Crime, recommends severe, swift, and specific punitive approaches to deter crime within society.
- Owing to the in-depth research studies that fortify the postulated theories of crime, Braga & Weisburd (2015) provide summative perspectives of the offense in society. From the Strain Theory to the Classical Theory of crime, it is perfectly evident that the extent of conformism and defiance within society are some of the defining tenets of crime within society.
History of Violence
- Multiple historical research studies have found that aggressive, regular warfare or organized violence among human beings was unheard of for most of history. Despite a relative calm and tranquility, which prevailed during the Holocene, the subsequent rapid and exponential population growth played a significant role in spurring crime and human violence within their organized societal systems. Owing to the universally accepted explanation of the absence of violence during pre-historic times, many anthropologists have explained the emergence of large-scale violence less than eleven thousand years ago.
- Despite the universally accepted explanation of the absence of crime and violence in human society, there exist two schools of thought have attempted to elucidate the advent of militaristic and organized violence within the human community. According to the first school of thought, violence and organized warfare date back to the beginning of the first modern humans. Explicitly, the post-Holocene era marked the unprecedented surge in inter-human conflict, some of which degenerated into full-time and organized militaristic violence within human society. Secondly, the other school of thought depicts the emergence of warfare and violence as a factor directly linked to human beings’ cultural and genetic perspectives. Despite the two schools of thought, the fact that both points to a relevant explanation for the emergence of violence are a descriptive illustration of the in-depth research culminating in their respective postulations.
- According to Wintermute (2015), the rapid technological advancement characterized by several human civilizations, such as the agrarian revolution and the emergence of city-states, has played a direct role in the militarization and prevalence of violence within society. For example, the improvement in various agricultural practices led to massive food production. Hence, subsequent population growth and the development of different special classes of people within the society, such as weapon manufacturers and advanced security systems, such as the modern military, have propagated violence. Academia has also embraced the idea of a peaceful pre-historic era. According to multiple research studies, the pre-historic era non-tribal communities co-existed peacefully, a subsequent phenomenon, which was the colonial perspective, affirmed by the unprecedented surge in violence during the colonial era.
- Even though modern academia embraced the idea of a peaceful pre-historic era, various scholars such as Lawrence Keeley have opted to counter such an approach by pointing towards the primitive wars that human beings fought out of competitive circumstances such as hunting and gathering. Nonetheless, Sumner et al. (2015) have provided a set of contrary findings, which depict the unimaginable approach through which modern society infiltrated the primitive and non-aggressive wars of the pre-historic era. Hence, the irrevocable description of the peaceful pre-historic era offers one of the most accurate and comprehensive historical perspectives of violence within society.
- In as much as different factions have strived to infiltrate the cultural underpinnings of competition and imposed a paradigm shift of war in society, the establishment of various institutions has strained for peace. For example, the modern criminal justice system and diplomatic entities tasked with combating domestic and international crime and violence is the progressive approach the society has embraced toward realizing a peaceful society.
Patterns in Violence Prevention
- A collaborative framework involving community involvement is one of the practical approaches to tackling crime in the community. Combined with a concerted effort to encourage various community groups through civic, social, and religious procedures, such involvement will play an essential role in eradicating crime within society. For instance, religious societies may implement strategic approaches to improving rapport through interaction among members of a community. Also, through civic activities, community leaders can strategize in educating youths and specific vulnerable groups as a viable approach to reducing and eventually eliminating crime within society.
- Community policing is one of the modern and emerging trends that various societies and policymakers have adopted in combating crime in communities. Research by Riedel & Welsh (2015) has highlighted the need for communities and law enforcement agencies to establish a rapport. By creating such rapport, community members can easily report to law enforcement agencies regarding suspicious intruders and activities in the community. Research by Riedel & Welsh (2015) has established a productive relationship and tangible outcomes under circumstances where local communities have found a friendly rapport with law enforcement agencies. For example, law enforcement agencies can timely combat crime based on advanced information regarding imminent criminal activities.
- Apart from a collaborative framework involving various community stakeholders and a friendly rapport with law enforcement agencies, an efficient criminal justice system is an additional vital component that has emerged as a practical approach to preventing crime within society. For example, proportional punitive measures against crime, speedy litigation, and adequate representation of all parties in a lawsuit is an efficient approach to eradicating crime in society. Such an instance is evident in the numerous scenarios in which the various state and federal correctional facilities have hosted convicts who can potentially engage in criminal activities and disrupt the normal tranquility and peace within the community.
- In addition to a collaborative framework in various communities, various law enforcement agencies across the United States have opted into the comprehensive implementation of detailed findings as well as recommendations of different research findings from the academic field. Through the blending and strategic combination of primary, secondary, and tertiary crime prevention strategies, such law enforcement agencies have realized a significant reduction in crime rates across specific communities (Wintermute, 2015). For instance, various law enforcement agencies have implemented educational programs among the youth in an attempt to prevent the specific vulnerable group from engaging in crime. Also, early childhood intervention is an additional approach central to law enforcement agencies about preventive strategies in tackling crime.
- Situational, institutional, and social approaches have also emerged as effective trends in combating crime across various societies in the United States. For instance, situational prevention strategies have been effective in inner communities comprised of African Americans and low-income earners. Such an intervention has played an important role in safety prevention approaches and violence reduction strategies across many communities in the United States. Also, social approaches, majorly focusing on lifestyle behavior, have significantly contributed to reducing and eradicating violence in society.
Various Methods of Government Prevention Strategies
- Localizing programs and treating violent crimes as a public health program are some of the vital approaches the United States has implemented as preventive approaches. By handling violence as a public health concern, governmental and not-for-profit organizations will implement precise and specific interventions toward eradicating violence in society (Riedel et al., 2015). In addition to treating violent crimes as a public health concern, a strategic interventional approach to the localization of programs has been one of the successful approaches to eradicating crime within society. For instance, the government has sponsored effective civic culture in inner communities, advocated for gun-free zones, and established local frameworks for eliminating crime.
- Apart from the localization of programs, the creation of strong and targeted programs and an in-depth focus on hotspots are different approaches to eradicating crime within society. For example, the United States government has tailored law enforcement programs for specific regions experiencing a high prevalence of homicide. Such a strategic initiative ensures that different approaches are implemented in various areas undergoing specific challenges (Wintermute, 2015). Also, an in-depth and concerted focus on specific hotspots enables the government to be proactive, reducing the prevalence of crime in society. For example, the government can earmark inner communities with a high prevalence of crime in society. Such strategic planning ensures ideal levels of preparedness among law enforcement agencies, reducing crime.
- The US government has implemented different approaches to strike a balance between prevention and repression and a comprehensive understanding of the virtual nature of crime. Given the paradigm shift in the nature and types of crime, there is an imperative need to understand the hidden domains in which violence has increased. Forensic researchers have estimated cybercrime as one of society’s rapidly growing types of crime (Riedel et al., 2015). Hence, there is imperative to understand society’s emerging virtual nature of crime. Secondly, the practical approach of striking a balance between prevention and repression will contribute to the establishment of an integrative and balanced framework for eradicating crime in society (Wintermute, 2015).
- Early intervention and targeting inequality in society are different approaches the US government has implemented to combat crime. For example, the government has emphasized reducing economic disparity across the nation. Such a concerted effort to narrow the economic gap within the community will play an essential role in eradicating crime through creating equal opportunities in the society, hence rebuilding the financial link among various classes of people within the society will spur prosperity, therefore, eliminate despair in the society (Riedel et al., 2015). In addition to improving economic links among various groups, early intervention has emerged as one of the successful strategies for combatting violence within the country. Owing to the environmental driving factors of crime, an early and timely interventional approach will reduce violence and eradicate the prevalence of crime in society.
Given the surrounding factors that underpin violence prevention strategies, evidence exists of fundamental tenets that inform the policymaking processes and the various factors that determine crime and violence in society. For instance, considering violence prevention strategies, abundant evidence illustrates the preventability of crime and possible eradication approaches. Secondly, an in-depth analysis of human aggression and violence theories depicts various postulations underpin the explanation of driving factors of crime in society. An analysis of research studies provides a detailed illustration of the possible causes of crime and applicable interventional approaches. In addition, research on the history of violence illustrates the absence of organized, militaristic, and aggressive interaction among pre-historic societies. An illustrative study of patterns in violence prevention has also highlighted community policing, building rapport among community members, and a collaborative framework as practical approaches to tackling crime and violence in society. Finally, the government has strategized and implemented various approaches to reducing crime within society. Specifically, such programs are tailored to meet the designated needs of particular communities.
Braga, A. A., & Weisburd, D. L. (2015). Police innovation and crime prevention: Lessons learned from police research over the past 20 years. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2633381
Riedel, M., & Welsh, W. N. (2015). Criminal Violence: Patterns, causes, and prevention. Oxford University Press, USA.
Sumner, S. A., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Hillis, S. D., Klevens, J., & Houry, D. (2015). Violence in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities. Jama, 314(5), 478-488. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.8371
Wintemute, G. J. (2015). The epidemiology of firearm violence in the twenty-first century United States. Annual Review of Public Health, 36, 5-19. doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pub health-031914-122535
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