[Solved] SWK5015: Teen Parenting Programs Literature Review


Literature Review Prompt: Teen Parenting Programs Assignment Instructions Your agency provides eight-week parenting classes for teen parents in an urbanenvironment. Services are open to both teen mothers and teen fathers; their children canbe any age. You get referrals from local schools, hospitals, social service agencies, and theDepartment of Children and Family Services. The program’s interventions […]

Teen Parenting Programs

The eight-week parenting classes for teen parenting programs provided by the agency is a crucial step because it recognizes that the youths are in a state that is developmentally different from older parents. According to Guin, Allen, and Barnes (2018), offering research-based parent coaching and education support has proven to help teen parents understand safety and child development, as well as reduce the likelihood of child neglect and abuse. In attaining the study objective, the paper will be divided into various sections. The first part will address the teen parenting prevalence, transformation over time, and its impact. The second section will explain some of the risks linked to teen parenting by applying social and theoretical work knowledge. The third part involves reviewing interventions that have been used to serve teen parents. The last one will present a summary of the significant understanding that is yet to be developed concerning the issue under analysis.

Problem Statement and Guiding Research Questions

The current program evaluation aims to address the economic, societal, and personal impacts of teen childbearing. Parenting education is essential for teens because they often lack many of the parenting skills required for optimum development. As a result, the program offers advocacy, counseling, education, and case management to the participants. The goal is to expand understanding, insight, as well as the acquisition of skills and knowledge about the development of the teen parents, their young ones, and the relationship between them.

The following research questions have been formulated to help guide the analysis:

  1. To what extent does teen parents’ knowledge of quality parenting practices (such as emotion coaching and positive discipline) increase due to the participation in the eight-week parenting class?
  2. What aspects of the eight-week parenting classes assist the teens in increasing a sense of competence in parenting?
  3. What are some of the economic, social, educational, and health issues the proposed teen parenting program tackle to help decrease reported stress levels among youths?
  4. Does a teen’s parent’s ability to use compassionate behavior management strategies rather than using corporal punishment as a result of participation in the proposed adolescent parenting program?

Nature of the Problem

Concerning prevalence of teen parenting, the study by Habitu, Yalew, and Bisetegn (2018) produced significant results showing that around 16 million girls aged 15-19 give birth annually, contributing approximately 11% of all teen parents globally. In this respect, Olszewski and Diaz (2019) supported the hypothesis that the US has the highest rates of live births by teen mothers among wealthier nations. Earlier research findings by Mollborn (2016) showed that teen parenting has changed over time, where it has dropped steadily since the 1990s, and it has declined among all ethnic and racial groups in the US. The analysis by Guin et al. (2018) revealed that teen parenting has various consequences, including hardship to adolescent mothers, their children, and their communities. For instance, it is less likely for teen parents to graduate from high school, which impacts their long-term income and educational attainment. In addition to the mentioned difficulties, childbearing results in high public sector costs, with an approximate annual national budget of 9.4 billion in the US (Guin et al., 2018). Hence, in comparison to youngsters born to older parents, the ones born to teen parents are more likely to experience different difficulties, such as academic and cognitive troubles.

Causes of the Problem

The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) is a theoretical work that offers intuition into adolescent sexual behavior and pregnancy. By utilizing TRA, Dippel, Hanson, Mcmahon, Griese, and Kenyon (2017), established that both subjective norms and attitudes demonstrate consistent association to sexual behavior and intention to use birth control in teens. Conversely, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory is a social work that provides insight into the behaviors of teenagers and their decision to embrace early parenthood. Based on this model, Seay, Umaña-Taylor, Jahromi, and Updegraff (2017) seemed to agree that the adolescents observed the conduct of the society around them, peers, and parents and imitate the behaviors, which lead to teen parenting across generations. Central to the research by Corcoran (2016), adolescent parenting is associated with risk factors, such as mental health concerns, whereby teen mothers face significant stress levels that often lead to the disorder. Likewise, O’Hara, Duchschere, Beck, & Lawrence (2017) revealed that elements, such as high-stress levels, lack of social support, and lower economic status contribute to the connection between young parents and child abuse. Hence, ensuring that teen parents receive sufficient academic, social, medical, and emotional support is vital to the future of the baby and parent.


The study by Guin et al. (2018) puts forth that despite the availability of research-based parenting education programs, there is a lack of initiatives that comprehensively target teen parents. The Incredible Years and Triple P are examples of two commonly adopted evidenced-based parenting programs efficient in cultivating child behavior and parenting practices (Guin et al., 2018). The research by Prinz (2020) revealed that the focus of Triple P is on nurturing positive parenting for the promotion of optimal development of children. Similarly, Mechelen, Kessels, Simons, and Glazemakers (2018) showed that the Triple P intervention assists parents by offering support from providers trained across different disciplines and by supporting parents in the utilization of positive behavior practices. Conversely, the investigation by Leijten et al. (2017) indicated that as a social learning theory-based parenting program, Incredible Years is useful for reducing child conduct programs and cultivating parent-child relationships and parenting skills. Likewise, Webster-Stratton, Dababnah, and Olson (2018) supported the hypothesis that the Incredible Years series are directed by a set of guidelines that enable parents programs to be flexible. Consequently, the flexibility cultivates children’s communication abilities and development, as well as enhancing parent skills levels and adaptation for given cultural and family situations.

Despite their effectiveness, The Incredible Years and Triple P programs lack mechanisms specific to teen parents. They require components, such as youth development, life skills, and navigating adolescent developmental changes (Guin et al., 2018). Consequently, there is a need for parent education programs primarily for adolescents, which is designed beyond parenting philosophy to integrate teen advancement and provide content to adolescent parents in appealing and relevant ways. The stated current gaps in knowledge revolving around teen-specific parent education programs have spurred the creation of the eight-week parenting classes by the agency. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the guiding practice theory connected to teen parenting. TPB is a suitable model for understanding social-cognitive determinants (such as perceived behavioral control, perceived norms, and attitudes) of sexual risk reduction among teenagers (Tseng et al., 2019). Conversely, Adlerian theory is a program evaluation theory that is connected to the proposed teen parenting methodology. In brief, the Adlerian method adopts a system-based approach with an emphasis on parenting education to enhance the wellbeing of the family and child.


Traditional parents’ education programs are often geared towards adults; hence, they do not meet the necessities of adolescent parents. The adolescent parents lack many of the required parenting skills for optimum growth. For instance, they tend to have lower responsiveness and less sensitivity to their youngsters and display more signs of aggression when feeling frustrated. Nevertheless, the parenting practices of adolescents improve when they receive parenting education and support, resulting in a positive outcome for children and parents. The knowledge that so far has not been established on the theme under analysis is centered on a parent education program intended explicitly for the difficulties of being a parent and a teen concurrently. There is no suitable model of adolescent parenting program involving teen specific-pedagogy in addition to the much-needed life expertise and relationship advancement. The distinctive contribution that this analysis makes to this need is that it recommends the innovation of a platform that combines knowledge in the area of teen advancement, parenting, life skills, and associations along technologically enriched educational initiative for teen parents.


Corcoran, J. (2016). Teenage pregnancy and mental health. Societies6(3), 1-9. doi: 10.3390/soc6030021

Dippel, E. A., Hanson, J. D., Mcmahon, T. R., Griese, E. R., & Kenyon, D. B. (2017). Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to understanding teen pregnancy with American Indian communities. Maternal and Child Health Journal21(7), 1449–1456. doi: 10.1007/s10995-017-2262-7

Guin, A., Allen, K., & Barnes, J. K. (2018). Development and pilot evaluation of the very important parents program (VIP): An intensive parent education program for teens. Family Science Review22(3), 104-123. Retrieved from www.familyscienceassociation.org/sites/default/files/7%20-%20VIP%20Program%20-%20Guin%2C%20Allen%2C%20Barnes%20%28FINAL%29.pdf

Habitu, Y. A., Yalew, A., & Bisetegn, T. A. (2018). Prevalence and factors associated with teenage pregnancy, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Pregnancy2018, 1–7. doi: 10.1155/2018/1714527

Leijten, P., Gardner, F., Landau, S., Harris, V., Mann, J., Hutchings, J., … Scott, S. (2017). Research review: Harnessing the power of individual participant data in a meta-analysis of the benefits and harms of the Incredible Years parenting program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry59(2), 99–109. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12781

Mechelen, K. V., Kessels, I., Simons, A., & Glazemakers, I. (2018). Do parents of children with metabolic diseases benefit from the Triple P – Positive Parenting Program? A pilot study. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism31(12), 1335–1342. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2018-0219

Mollborn, S. (2016). Teenage mothers today: What we know and how it matters. Child Development Perspectives11(1), 63–69. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12205

Olszewski, L., & Diaz, A. (2019). Adolescent parenting: Global perspective, local action. Annals of Global Health85(1), 1-10. doi: 10.5334/aogh.2477

O’Hara, K. L., Duchschere, J. E., Beck, C. J. A., & Lawrence, E. (2017). Adolescent-to-parent violence: translating research into effective practice. Adolescent Research Review2(3), 181–198. doi: 10.1007/s40894-016-0051-y

Prinz, R. J. (2020). Triple P—Positive Parenting Program. Ending the Physical Punishment of Children: A Guide for Clinicians and Practitioners., 133–143. doi: 10.1037/0000162-014

Seay, D. M., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2017). A prospective study of adolescent mothers’ social competence, childrens effortful control and compliance and childrens subsequent developmental outcomes. Social Development26(4), 709–723. doi: 10.1111/sode.12238

Tseng, Y. H., Cheng, C. P., Kuo, S. H., Hou, W. L., Chan, T. F., & Chou, F. H. (2019). Safe sexual behaviors intention among female youth: The construction on extended theory of planned behavior. Journal of Advanced Nursing. doi: 10.1111/jan.14277

Webster-Stratton, C., Dababnah, S., & Olson, E. (2018). The Incredible Years® group-based parenting program for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Handbook of Parent-Implemented Interventions for Very Young Children with Autism Autism and Child Psychopathology Series, 261–282. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-90994-3_17


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