Question 1 (40 Points) Please read the article entitled: A Quantitative Approach to Evaluating Caring in Nursing Simulation. Kindly respond to the following two essay questions in the space provided. Each essay question is worth 20pts for a total of 40pts: Identify the measurement tool used in this study and discuss the psychometric properties of […]
In the research article “A Quantitate Approach to Evaluating Caring in Nursing Simulation Measuring Tools,” the researchers establish a correlation between caring and reality in investigating caring outcomes and competency in nursing. As such, they recognize the importance of nurses entering the patient’s world and knowing them better, either in real or simulated environments, thus, necessitating a study to measure the effectiveness of the nursing simulation environment.
Tools. For the simulation, the researcher adopted the Coates’ Caring Efficacy scales while undertaking the CES-SFV (Caring Efficacy Scale-Simulation Faculty Version) and CES-SSV (Caring Efficacy Scale-Simulation Student Version).
Design. Using the Caring Efficacy scale, the study’s design evaluated students’ self-ratings on efficacy caring against faculty ratings (Eggenberger, Keller, Chase, & Payne, 2012). As such, the research report on the outcomes of the adjusted instrument’s psychometric properties.
Setting. Volunteer students enrolled in a nursing college majoring in caring theory participated in the study, intending to support learning rather than evaluate student practice. The researchers informed the students that the experiment’s results would not affect their grades (Eggenberger et al., 2012). The college of Nursing initially performed simulation scenarios that involved a high-fidelity simulated heart attack with a performer posing as the patient’s wife, thus incorporating lessons on physiological data, realistic context, and psychomotor skills. The simulation settings followed guidelines contained in organizations tasked with Cardiac life support and critical care nursing in America.
Procedure. With the approval of the institution’s review board, the participants completed the CES- SSV and were rated by a doctoral student and a non-clinical instructor, and a faculty member who used CES-SFV. Each group comprised a faculty member who acted as the patient’s wife, two graduate students engaged in support roles, and three to four undergraduate learners (Eggenberger et al., 2012). The simulation was videotaped to establish reliability and gauge and correct rating discrepancies. As such, both raters used videotaped and live sessions to complete CES-SFV. Finally, students completed CES-SSV upon simulation completion.
Reliability of the Measuring Tool. Although no instrument replaces the complex and unique human relationship-centered caring, the Coates Caring Efficacy Scale shows promise in depicting caring efficacy. As such, the CES-SSV and CES-SFV independence in usage and correlation to get accurate depiction to increase its reliability (Eggenberger et al., 2012). Therefore, the scales show significant internal consistency while exhibiting excellent interrater reliability.
In the study by Eggenberger et al. (2012), the researchers explore the findings and correlation between the data sets. First, the data shows a high score range that shows the possibility of differentiating among the test subjects. According to data analysis, the rater’s overall score is 0.01 at the level of 0.658, which shows that the independent evaluators agree on the student’s efficacy in caring (Eggenberger et al., 2012). Similarly, the raters achieved reliability of between 0.917 and 0.965, with the faulty ones showing agreeableness for queries 4.01 and 4.20 (Eggenberger et al., 2012). Also, although a lower correlation exists between the two rater’s scores and the learners, the results are still statistically significant. As such, the students’ ratings correlate with the faculty examiner’s evaluation.
The researchers also conducted a second analysis as the two groups of learners contained different experiences and backgrounds. However, the t-test yielded a slight difference between the two groups of students and also among the faculty members (Eggenberger et al., 2012). However, one rater shows a slight discrepancy in analyzing the groups, although the deviation was not statistically substantial (Eggenberger et al., 2012). Arguably, this gives credence to the instruments used for the study while showing that the correlation between the data set was significantly accurate.
Low correlations were also recorded in the student’s answer, with Query 8 appearing in the three ratings, while two other queries appeared in two out of three scales. The variation could be faulted by how strongly the three questions related to the simulation could be correlated. Arguably, the nature of the simulation elicited a less sense of affiliation to these responses by the learners, making the low correlation correct in this regard. Therefore, the correlation falls within an acceptable tolerance range of the experiment, and it could be surmised that it achieved its objectives.
The researchers used qualitative methods to conduct content analysis and interviews using audiotapes. As such, they dwelled on the data until a clear meaning was identified. Also, two consultants from the nursing field collaborated on the trustworthiness of the findings (Roberts, 2012). The research sought to find the nurses’ insight and concerns on unaccompanied hospitalized minors, which yielded the absence reason, unit variation, age difference, safety issues, and care outcomes.
Identification and Development of Qualitative Themes
Parent’s Absence. The first theme identified involved the absence of parents residing with minors at the hospital. As such, the nurses attributed financial burden, thus resulting in transportation problems and catering for the medical bills as some of the reasons for this occurrence. Another reason is caring for the patient’s brothers and sisters back home (Roberts, 2012).
Variation of Data by Nursing Workplace. The unit a nurse is attached to contributes significantly to the reason for abandonment. For example, firstborn infants hospitalized at neonatal intensive care would receive fewer visits and even have the parents detach from them in cases of extended care. Also, most parents purposefully abandon teens even for major medical complications, thus denying them emotional and psychological support (Roberts, 2012).
Age Difference. The parent’s absence affected the minors differently according to their age. For example, the researchers observed that the effect was more detrimental to minors between mid-infancy and early childhood schooling age. At this age, the children were staff-anxious and required comfort only from their parents. On the other hand, while school children suffered more from boredom, teenagers were afflicted with being separated from their friends and mostly acted tough (Roberts, 2012).
Safety Concerns. The nurses noted that unattended children faced many safety concerns that necessitated them to be highly sedated compared to attended children. The risk ranges from children moving around the hospital and requiring nurses to put them in cage cribs (Roberts, 2012). Similarly, teens mostly pondered about the integrity of the medical team, causing unease among them. As such, a present parent primarily recognizes signs of unrest better than the busy nurses, making them better able to handle the situation.
Variation in Perceived Outcomes. Most participants felt that nurses concentrated more on unattended children. The reasoning behind the act is that the nurses were concerned with the effect of deficient parental time on the children (Roberts, 2012).
The study “Nurses’ Perception of Unaccompanied Hospitalized Children” is significant as it contains implications for nursing practices. The primary concern identified is the unaccompanied child’s safety when subjected to sedation and constrain, which may lead to iatrogenic complications such as respiratory depression, withdrawal, skin breakdown, and bradycardia (Roberts, 2012). As such, medical institutions need to incorporate more care into their schedule through staffing rather than restrain the movement of minors and risk both psychological and medical complications. Similarly, unattended children caused inequality of care, where they received more attention and nurses’ time. The problem shows that medical institutions must encourage parents to stay with their children while collecting admission data. In cases where they confirm that they cannot attend or accompany their children, the parents must be incentivized to permit the “primaries” nursing plan in absentia.
The study impacts my knowledge of nursing practice by helping me understand the complexity of issues involving unaccompanied children. As much as such minors face psychological and emotional problems due to separation, the study also humanizes the struggle the parents and families go through in this period, thus helping me to gain empathy towards their struggle. As such, the study will help in my fieldwork to recognize issues affecting unattended children and their families, suggest solutions that will reduce the trauma faced by the child and their families, and work to make their experience as pleasant as possible. As such, I will have applied the knowledge to the ethics and meaning of nursing as a profession.
Eggenberger, T. L., Keller, K. B., Chase, S. K., & Payne, L. (2012). A quantitative approach to evaluating caring in nursing simulation. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(6), 406-409.
Roberts, C. A. (2012). Nurses’ perceptions of unaccompanied Hospitalized children. Pediatric Nursing, 38(3), 133-136.
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Published On: 01-01-1970