Final Exam – World History 020 Part I. Cumulative Essay [50 points]. Please respond to ONE of the two prompts listed below in a 2.5 – 3 page essay. Be certain to integrate at least FIVE key terms from the course lectures into your answer: Please explain the significance of national self-determination in relation to […]
International organizations pertain to states developing and creating formal, continuing organized structures to operate various concepts of their association with each other. It signifies a response to the extreme decentralization of the traditional system of global relations and a determination by leaders to implement the mechanisms of that organization to the necessities posed by the continually growing complexity of the interdependence of states (Armstrong, 2017). The establishment of global relations underlying international organizations is often described as idealistic. This is because it emphasizes the potentialities of corporation and harmony and minimizes conflict dynamics in the relationship states. The League of Nations and United Nations are transnational establishments established after World War 1 and World War 2, correspondingly signifying the willpower to maximize alliances and diminish clashes among contributing states, handling collaboration as a good to be encouraged and conflict as an immoral to be controlled.
The League of Nations (LN) was established due to the dissolution and destructions arising from World War One. As time passed and harmony appeared no nearer, the dreadful fatalities of the First World War produced an ever-increasing community petition that some technique be established to avert the renaissance of the devastation and misery that were now perceived to be unavoidable parts of the current world. In that sense, LN’s basic and central idea was that hostile conflict is an offence to the immediate victim and the entire human community. LN was an ambitious venture aiming to build up a system of international cooperation and permanent institutions that would perpetually maintain the world’s peace. In that sense, the institution mirrored a widespread belief that a major cause of war in 1914 was international disorganization, such as chaotic competition among countries (River, 2018). Therefore, LN aimed at controlling hostile competition for individual power with friendly and constructive cooperation.
The LN was effective in various ways in attaining its charter-enshrined objectives. For instance, despite having a limited budget, the institution became a complicated and massive organization. Amongst other things, it endeavoured to coordinate a reaction to the Great Depression, helped deliver the foundation of intercontinental law, encouraged good health worldwide, and sought to expedite cerebral cooperation worldwide (O’Malley & Jackson, 2018). LN further used negotiation to address the traditional security areas of military competition between states, peaceful settlement of international disputes, alliance-building, and diplomatic relations. Similarly, it aimed to remove the very cause of war by addressing the needs of vulnerable people and promoting economic and social justice among its members. Thus, although LN eventually failed to keep global peace, its economic and social work was extensive and successful.
Conversely, LN was superseded by the United Nations (UN) after the Second World War. The latter is an institution that derived its key characteristics from the 19th Century heritage and the lessons of experience, both negative and positive, offered by LN. The UN was formed as a key element of the decentralized and varied system of global organizations that would consist of autonomous specialized agencies (De Coning & Peter, 2019). It adheres to a pattern initially set by the public international unions and existing regional organizations or might be formed by a limited group of states. The UN was developed as a multi-purpose institution focused on specific objectives, such as human rights and environmental concerns, health, peace-keeping, and collective security.
The UN has been effective in attaining its charter-enshrined objectives in various ways. For example, it provides humanitarian support to millions of people globally, offers medical assistance and food in emergencies and prevents conflicts by exploring options to ensure peace (Schwartzberg, 2016). Although sometimes the institution is criticized for its spending, bureaucracy, and policies, it has accomplished numerous peacekeeping missions. The organization has achieved this based on its four main objectives. First, it aims to attain global cooperation in addressing international challenges. Secondly, it works to develop friendly relations among nations. Thirdly, it upholds international security and peace (United Nations, 2017). Finally, its purpose is to be a centre for harmonizing countries’ undertakings to accomplish the mentioned common ends.
In summary, based on the chartered enshrined objectives of the LN and UN, it is evident that the formation of global relations centred on international institutions is often designated as idealistic. In that sense, it emphasizes potentiality, cooperation and harmony and minimizes the component of conflict in countries’ relationships. LN and UN have demonstrated that international organizations are centred on a dualistic conception of global relations, which acknowledges cooperative and conflictual associations as basic features of the multistate system. The international organizations, in principle, signify the objective to maximize collaboration and minimize conflict among participating nations. Therefore, the institutions express an obligation to harmonise international relations and deny the inevitability of the manifestation of hostilities, such as war among nations.
Armstrong, D. (2017). International organisation in world politics. London: Macmillan Education UK.
De Coning, C., & Peter, M. (2019). United Nations peace operations in a changing global order. Oslo: Palgrave Macmillan.
O’Malley, A., & Jackson, S. (2018). The institution of international order: from the League of Nations to the United Nations. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
River, C. (2018). The League of Nations: The controversial history of the failed organization that preceded the United Nations. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Schwartzberg, J. E. (2016). Transforming the United Nations system: Designs for a workable world. New York, NY: Brookings Institution Press.
United Nations. (2017). Basic facts about the United Nations, Volume 42. New York, NY: United Nations.
During the Second World War, the Soviet Union and the United States fought together as allies against the Axis powers. Nevertheless, the association between the two countries was an apprehensive one. The Soviets had long resented the decades-long refusal of the US to consider the USSR a legitimate component of the international community (). They were also not pleased with their delayed entry into the Second Cold War, which led to the deaths of tens of millions of Russians. For their part, the US had been concerned about the tyrannical rule of Joseph Stalin as the leader of Russia and wary of Soviet communism. After the end of the war, the stated objections developed into an overwhelming sense of mutual enmity and distrust, which led to tensions in terms of ideology, logistics, and war that extended beyond the borders of the concerned powers.
In terms of ideology, the economic and political systems of the communist USSR and capitalist USA were incompatible. In the latter, freedom of speech is cherished, the government is elected democratically, and the economy is largely free from state control. In the former, the nation is ruled from the centre, with the control of the society and economy strictly in the hands of the Communist Party-led regime (Capaccio, 2018). The tension extended beyond the concerned superpowers because both sides wanted other states to adhere to their implemented ideologies for their own gains. The ideological differences had a considerable impact on decision-making. After World War Two, Great Britain became a world power. In the end, the US had to become more involved in European affairs and abandon its isolationist tendencies.
President Truman announced a containment policy centred on the notion that eliminating communism required efforts to prevent it from spreading further. The principle became known as the Truman Doctrine. The US believed the globe was becoming increasingly divided and blamed the Soviets for stifling the world economy and encouraging dictatorial regimes (Capaccio, 2018). At the same time, the US introduced Marshall Aid to ensure its containment efforts. The process entailed delivering economic aid, such as expertise, building materials, machinery, food, and in some cases, funds to European nations that were perceived to be in danger of being taken over by the communists. The divisions resulting from the ideological differences became apparent with the establishment two alliances: the Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). The latter’s objective was to counter the communists’ expansion threat in Western Europe (Capaccio, 2018). Finally, the former was established in response to West Germany joining NATO. The aim of Stalin was to counter what he considered an “aggressive alliance.”
In terms of war, the two superpowers did not use weapons or fight against each other. Nevertheless, the tension was based on proxy wars and the Nuclear Arms race. For this reason, it had a considerable impact beyond the borders of the concerned states. In this regard, the Cold War divided the globe into three camps: nonaligned, Warsaw Camp, and NATO camp. The last two camps were equipped with nuclear weapons. The conflict rapidly extended to other parts of the world. America encouraged other responsive regions around the globe to establish their own alliances, such as SEATO in South East Asia and CENTO in the Middle East. The objective was to surround the USSR with an armed coalition, which, in turn, led to increased tensions. At the same time, Cold War directly influenced international stability and became global because both superpowers possessed nuclear missiles that could reach Washington and Moscow, respectively. Furthermore, it resulted in the division of Germany in particular and Europe in general. The effects were also felt in Africa, enabling the creation and emergence of new nation-states since the colonial masters could no longer sustain them.
Capaccio, G. (2018). The Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing.
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Published On: 01-01-1970