[Solved] EVE 304: Air Quality Lab Report

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Overview and Objectives Lab 1 – Air Quality EVE 304 Spring 2022 Learning objective: The learning objective for Topic 1 is to understand air quality engineering through data analysis and an air quality monitoring activity. The data analysis portion of this topic will be to properly demonstrate different forms of displaying data and to demonstrate […]

EVE 304: Topic 1 Report

Abstract:

Air quality is an important factor in human health and quality of life. In Arizona, the air quality must be monitored since it has been rated to have some of the worst air quality in the United States from several sources. The American Lung Association’s State of the Air report ranked Phoenix 7th for year-round particle pollution. Air pollution can cause respiratory infections, heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer.

Introduction:

Due to increased industrialization activities in the contemporary world, there has been a rapid increase in the rate of air pollution among nations. Factors such as greenhouse gas emissions by industries, exhaust fumes by vehicles, and air quality have continuously declined over the years. As a result, the prevalence and rate of spread of various respiratory conditions have gradually increased, which calls for the attention of policymakers. As such, it is important to investigate the importance of protecting air quality to promote health among members of society. This study seeks to investigate critical factors that cause a decline in the Air Quality Index and identify the potential implications of poor air quality in public health.

While pollution remains a major threat to air quality among many regions across the globe, it is important to investigate key contributing factors to high levels of air pollution. Cooper (2014) states that both short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants can cause various health problems. Different approaches have been implemented to monitor the level of air quality and facilitate the development of strategies to protect members of society from the negative implications of poor air quality. The study will use air quality monitors to assess changes in AQI across different months of 2020. The main contributing factor to any decline in AQI recorded will be identified. Such findings will illuminate strategies to ensure good air quality and reduce the prevalence of health issues resulting from poor air quality.

Materials

The materials used for this lab were data that was collected from internet sources for part one. For part two of the lab, two types of air quality monitors were used, JSM-131 CI air quality detector and StellateTM Multi-function air quality monitor.

Experimental Procedures

For part one, the data was downloaded from given websites. For part two, the air quality monitors were used ???.

Chemical Measurements

There were no chemicals to measure in part one. For part two ???

Data Analysis

The data analysis was done using excel. Part one had 3 subsections. The purpose of the first subsection was to analyze data that had Air Quality Index (AQI) values and individual pollutant concentration values, all for the year 2020. The first task was determining the month in 2020 with the highest total AQI value. The data given had the daily dates assigned to an AQI value with the pollutant that determined that value. The data was summed up by month using the excel sum tool to determine the month with the highest total AQI value.

 

Table 1: Sum of all the AQI values for each month of 2020

This data shows that August had the highest total value. The next step was to use the data for every day in August and see what the average was for each weekday and weekend day. This was done by adding a column to the given data and labelling each day of the week with a number 1-7, 1 being Monday and 7 is Sunday. To start the numbering, it was determined that August 1, 2020, was a Saturday, so the numbering began with 6. This method is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: This figure shows the method of numbering the days of the week to be able to calculate the averages for each day of the week. The first column is the number method used to determine the days. Monday is 1 through Saturday is 7

With this method of numbering, the AVERAGEIFS tool in Excel can be utilized. This is done by first choosing the data that you want to be averaged, this data was in column D, and the month of August was in rows 216-246. Then the next criterion used is to tell Excel only to average this data if the number in column B was 1 using the same range only to average the days for August. This would average all the Mondays. The AVERAGEIF statement looks like this, =AVERAGEIFS(D216:D246, B216:B246, “=1”). This statement will average all the Mondays in August. The last number in the statement just needs to be changed to find the averages for all the other days of the week. The averages for each individual day can be calculated. The second aspect of this subsection was to determine if there were any violations of the Clean Air Act for each pollutant in 2020. The data was downloaded from https://www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data/air-data-multiyear-tile-plot. The maximum values the Clean Air Act allowed were found on the EPA website. (USEPA, NAAQS Table, 2021) There were multiple sites in the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale areas that were monitored. Graphs were made that determined if there were any violations of each pollutant. The COUNTIF function was used in Excel to determine the number of violations that occurred. This function works by telling Excel to count the number of times a limit is exceeded for a certain range of numbers. This function calls the range to be analyzed first, then the maximum value. This is how the function looks in Excel, =COUNTIF(F2:F11732,”>150″). This formula is for PM10, and the maximum concentration before a violation occurs 150.

The next subsection for part one was to determine if temperature affects the concentration of pollutants in the air. ???

The final subsection for part one was to determine the variation in the concentration of a pollutant over one day. The data was downloaded from http://alert.fcd.maricopa.gov/alert/Google/v3/air.html using the Central Phoenix Station. The data were obtained for each pollutant using the hourly report for the last 300 points. The pollutant CO was used to analyze this data. Figure 2 shows a sample of the data that was collected.

Figure 2: A sample of the data collected for the pollutant CO at the beginning of January 2022

For this study, the data were analyzed by time of the day and broken down further by the days of the week. This was done to be able to compare how the pollutant changed hourly and also compare if the different days of the week had trends that could be determined.

Results:

Part 1 – Subsection 1

August was determined to have the highest AQI values, as shown in Table 1.

Table 2: Shows the average AQI values for each day of the week in the month of August 2020

Graphs were made to determine if there were violations for any of the pollutants in 2020

Figure ?: Graph to be used to determine if there were any violations of Nitrogen Dioxide in 2020

0 violations occurred

Figure ?: Graph to be used to determine if there were any violations of Ozone in 2020

470 violations occurred

Figure ?: Graph to be used to determine if there were any violations of Sulfur Dioxide in 2020

0 violations occurred

Figure ?: Graph to be used to determine if there were any violations of Particulate Matter 2.5 in 2020 – 67 violations occurred

Figure ?: Graph to be used to determine if there were any violations of Particulate Matter 10 in 2020 – 87 violations occurred

Part 1 – Subsection 2

Results from Katelin

Part 1 – Subsection 3

Discussion: Jorgi – Part 1 – Katelin – Part 2

Table 2 shows the average AQI value for each weekday for the month of August 2020. The table shows that the weekday average is smaller than the weekend average. This seems counterintuitive. The first thought would be that there is more weekday traffic, so the AQI would be higher. There is evidence from a YouTube video that a giant haboob hit the Eloy area on August 16, 2020. On this day, the AQI value is 1124 due to PM10. August 16, 2020, was a Sunday, which is why the Sunday average is so high. If the value of 1124 is adjusted to a value similar to the rest of the Sundays, the weekend average is slightly smaller than the weekday value. The assumption that more weekday traffic leads to higher AQI values is good unless outlying occurrences such as monsoon storms or haboobs exist.

The second study for subsection 1 in part 1 determines if and how many violations occurred in 2020 for each pollutant. Figures ?-? show the concentration of each pollutant with the maximum concentration allowed before a violation occurs. The maximum concentration is shown with the orange line on each graph. It can be seen in Figure ? that there are no violations of NO2. For Ozone, 470 violations occurred. This can be seen in Figure ?. The number of violations that occurred was determined using the given data in Excel. Figure? Shows no violations for SO2. The violations for PM2.5 occurred 67 times. The violations can be seen in Figure ?. Figure? Shows the violations that occur of PM10. There were 87 violations for PM10.

Conclusion:

Findings from the study indicate that violations of, ozone, particulate matter 2.5, and particulate matter 10 constitute the main issues facing air quality. Findings indicate that the average AQI values in August 2020 varied each day, whereby Sunday had the highest value while Monday and Saturday had the least values. Such findings indicate that violations are influenced by economic activity, in which days with the highest rate of economic activities record the highest number of violations. Throughout the year 2020, 470 Ozone violations occurred, 67 Particulate Matter 2.5 violations, and 87 Particulate Matter 10 violations. Such findings necessitate developing policies to improve adherence to Ozone, Particulate Matter 2.5, and Particulate Matter 10 regulations by members of society.

References:

  1. AirNow. Air Quality Index Basics. Available at: https://www.airnow.gov/aqi/aqi-basics/#:~:text=Think%20of%20the%20AQI%20as,300%20represents%20hazardous%20air%20quality
  2. Open Access Government. (2021) Atmospheric Science: Air Pollution at Night. Available at: https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/atmospheric-science-air-pollution-at-night/110484/
  3. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2021) Basic Information About Carbon Monoxide Outdoor Air Pollution Available at: https://www.epa.gov/co-pollution/basic-information-about-carbon-monoxide-co-outdoor-air-pollution#:~:text=Breathing%20air%20with%20a%20high,%2C%20confusion%2C%20unconsciousness%20and%20death.
  4. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2021) Ground Level Ozone Basics. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/ground-level-ozone-pollution/ground-level-ozone-basics
  5. United States Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA). (2021) NAAQS Table. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table
  6. https://www.iqair.com/us/usa/arizona/phoenix
  7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N9EqvqIfIc0
  8. Cooper, C. D. (2014). Introduction to environmental engineering. Waveland Press.

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