Hispanic Populations and the Military: Literature Review


Literature Review Instructions The first major assignment in this course is a literature review of the subtopic you are investigating within our group’s research area: To analyze how the Army can achieve officer quality and diversity targets focused on the emerging growth markets, particularly the Hispanic population with a geographic emphasis on the Southwestern USA. […]

Hispanic Population and the Military

Among the US armed forces, Hispanics are underrepresented in senior management positions. The subject under analysis was to determine how the army could attain officer diversity and equality, emphasizing the emerging growth market, mainly the Hispanic population. Such social representation within the military is a continuing concern for policymakers. Without a doubt, Congress requires the Department of Defense to annually put out statistics on the social description of the army based on characteristics such as age, marital status, ethnicity, and race. An implicit objective is that the diversity in the military should estimate multiplicity in the general population. The investigation results are that Hispanics, who comprise the largest segment of the US population, have been underrepresented in the army, particularly in senior officer positions. The analysis has concluded that there is a need to overcome this challenge through education, mentorship, relaxing recruiting standards, recruiting more intensively from qualified individuals, and increasing the pool of trained individuals.

Keywords: ethnicity, Hispanic, military, senior leadership position

Hispanic Population and the Military

Recent theoretical development has revealed that officers are much more demographically diverse than the enlisted troops they lead, and the officer corps is far from representative of the population in the US. Multiplicity rises as rank fall across the services, largely for Hispanics. Compared to 30% of whites and 26% of blacks, more than 41% of Hispanics enlisted in the army were in the lowest three pay grades (Press, 1999a). In the subsequent 30 to 50 years, the racial minority will grow to be the new majority population compelled by the quick upsurge of Hispanic inhabitants in the nation (Mora, 2015). Nevertheless, regardless of the significant growth of the group in question in the nation, they continue to be underrepresented in senior leadership positions. Hispanics have increased their presence in the military; however, the military continues to promote Senior Leaders from the branches that Hispanics are least likely to obtain, and Hispanics have not positioned themselves properly to obtain these Senior Leadership positions.


The following research questions have been formulated to help guide the current analysis:

    1. Have the promotion boards reevaluated the review process of packets? What are the discriminators?
    2. Has the military looked at reevaluating the branches from which to select Senior Leaders?
    3. What programs have the military put in place to guide Hispanics, so they are adequately prepared to qualify for and be in Senior Leadership roles within their current branches?
    4. Does the military want to diversify the Senior Ranks? Considering this has been an ongoing problem for years, no plan or concept has changed the dynamics.
    5. Do Hispanics tend to shy away from branches that may require them to be away from their families for long periods, even though those are currently the positions the military tends to promote?
    6. Have the Hispanic Soldier, at a minimum, earned their Bachelor’s Degree?
    7. Have the Hispanic Soldier, whose English may not be the strongest, taken self-initiative to strengthen and expand their English dialect?
    8. Has the Hispanic Soldier settled for non-leadership positions because of past military trends not promoting minorities?


In attaining the present investigation’s objective, a literature review was carried out utilizing Cooper’s (1988) procedure for synthesizing collected works. The technique allowed for various steps, including formulating the problem, data collection, assessing the suitability of the information, and interpreting and analyzing the relevant statistics (Kebritchi, Lipschuetz, & Santiago, 2017). The findings were then represented in a model that demonstrated why there is an increase of Hispanics in the army, but there is a lack of the presence of the group in question in senior leadership.

Problem Formulation

As an illustration, the gender and ethical majority-created standards favor those equipped to score well in various testing, including standardized ones. For example, they utilize GPA and college education for branching or academic testing at courses like captain career courses. More so, they use GT criteria for elite units and progress schools or ASVAB for enlisted ranks. Even GRE has become a requirement for all captains, which is problematic to minority leaders, who mostly come from an educational background with weak science and math focus. It is acknowledged that there is the existence of a lack of representation, but the military has, over the years, made some progress and is trying to open an institution as possible for all groups (Press, 1999b). Thus, there is a natural strain in the women, black, and Hispanic representation in senior ranks.

Data Collection

Data collection was done to find experimental research consisting of mixed methods, qualitative, as well as quantitative techniques. The keywords used included the following ones: “Department of Defense,” “education attainment of Hispanics,” “culture of the Hispanic and the military,” and “History of Hispanics in the US military.” ProQuest and Google Scholar are the two central databases that were utilized for literature research.

Data Evaluation and Analysis

20 articles were located based on the designated method. The collected articles were assessed using the content analysis method, considering the main topic of the studies (Kebritchi, Lipschuetz, & Santiago, 2017). Moreover, the chosen readings were characterized into major topical subjects. On the whole, new themes were added until they reached saturation, implying that all new information could be classified under the already-established themes.


The literature search was not exhaustive despite the review being systematic and extensive. The objective was to locate as many studies as possible. Nevertheless, the results were limited to the outcomes of the searched databases utilizing the stated keywords. Hence, it is sensible to accept that other studies related to the literature did not emerge and were not incorporated into the review.


In this section, the study identified, appraised, and synthesized the relevant literature that reveals the increase of the Hispanic population within the army but the lack of the presence of the population in senior positions. The analysis has helped to shed light on whether the Hispanics’ failure to properly position themselves for top leadership posts or the collapse of the military to diversify the branches in which they select senior leaders. In that sense, the analysis enlightens how knowledge has progressed within this area. At the same time, the investigation outlines what is generally accepted, what has been done already, and the present state of thinking on how the military can attain officer diversity and equality with an emphasis on the Hispanic population.


Earlier research findings by Asch, Buck, Klerman, Kleykamp and Loughran (2009) emphasized that an implicit objective of the armed services, Department of Defense, and Congress is that diversity in the military should approximate that of the general population. A vital dynamic of that diversity is the representation of Hispanics. Despite polls indicating a strong tendency of Hispanics to serve in the military, the group is all the same underrepresented among military recruits. Therefore, Asch et al. (2009) suggest the following approaches to increasing enlistment: directing enlisting towards less-qualified Hispanics, increasing employment and awareness more intensively among the competent population of the inhabitants, and aggregating the number of Hispanic youth who would attain the admission criteria of the military and are qualified.

Central to the research by Dempsey and Shapiro (2008), since Hispanics were not acknowledged as a distinct ethnic or racial category at the time most Generals were enlisted in the army, most of them spent their careers as some other classifications. In the ranks, other Generals could be categorized as Hispanics, but they have opted not to (Dempsey & Shapiro, 2008). Earlier research findings by Valenzuela and Lemons (2008) revealed that the selection of Hispanic officers by Louis Caldera (another Hispanic) in improving the army’s record on retention, minority recruitment, and diversity of the force raised some eyebrows in the Pentagon. The authors showed that there were resentment and skepticism among other officers stationed in the Pentagon who perceived that the selected officer was on the fast track for promotion, considering that he was Hispanic. The officers in the Pentagon also recognized that fluency in the Spanish language was a prerequisite for the advancement of one’s career in the military, given that the Secretary of the army was Hispanic (Valenzuela & Lemons, 2008). Such remarks were borne of ignorance and were aimed at making Hispanics conscious of their place in the pecking order of superiority.

Kilburn (1994) produced significant results showing that, unlike whites and Hispanics, African Americans are overrepresented due to eligible individuals’ high rates of enlistment. In their investigation, Kleykamp (2007) suggested that military service promotes social mobility for ethnic and racial minorities due to the steady employment and less discriminatory environment with generous benefits, such as the GI Bill benefits for a funding college education. However, in recent years, the transformations in the political and social context of military service merit a re-assessment of claims that the armed forces advance socioeconomic attainment for minorities. Currently, Hispanic and black young men are no longer more likely to enlist in the armed forces overwork or college than their white peers, as was the case in the 1980s and 1990s (Kleykamp, 2007). In brief, Hispanic youths are disqualified at different levels insofar as the youths in the group differ from other groups regarding various factors, including moral character, health, aptitude, and education.


An interesting dynamic in the recruitment policy of the army relates to high school graduation. A more comprehensive description can be found in Dempsey and Shapiro (2008), who pointed out that the service mainly aims to limit entry to those with high school diplomas. Nonetheless, in the course of Louis Caldera term as Secretary of the army, he detected that Hispanics with GEDs had greater retention degrees than and did just as well as white soldiers with high school diplomas (Dempsey & Shapiro, 2008). Consequently, the criteria for entry into the service were reevaluated. It also ensued in Operation Graduation, a widespread movement to inspire high school completion among all adolescents. In their research, Boyd (2019) established that in comparison to 49.6% of Hispanic male veterans, more than 88.2% of Hispanic female veterans emphasized that the rewards of learning were tremendously important. Similarly, in contrast to no Hispanic male veterans, more Hispanic female veterans were exposed that they had completed a teacher certification program. All in all, the degrees to which the educational advantage and insights use contrasts between Hispanic females and black female veterans, as well as a Hispanic male and black male veterans.

Table 1: Educational issues and related sources

According to Lara (2015), the demographic inequalities of the Latinos in the Navy branch of the military intersectional identities of Latino and Chicano study participants operate as a kind of habitus aligned with the military’s institutional needs. It encompasses the life story of a Latino military veteran, known as Chicano, who accentuated the high value placed on learning. At the same time, Loving (2017) supported the claim that it is crucial to recognize the curriculum and the civic capabilities of learners as they continue to experience low test scores on national civic evaluations. The mentioned author argues that this is particularly the case for the quickly growing Hispanic population, which suffers a gap in public achievement. In brief, the findings by Loving (2017) may be used in high school districts nationwide and the U.S Army Cadet Command when drafting decisions on a curriculum for the civic education of Hispanics.

The investigation by Loving (2017) revealed that historically, the federally operated military academies had fashioned some of the most exceptional leaders in the US military. The US merchants Marine Academy, the US Naval Academy, and the US Air Force Academy are among the military academies operated by the federal government. Loving (2017) further produced significant results showing that, at present, the mentioned institutions have aimed to increase the representation of Hispanic among the learners’ population on their campuses. Orchowski (2008) concurs with Loving (2017) that the United States Military Academy is one of the country’s most selective, elite, and prestigious colleges and is seeing a growth in Hispanic heritage learners, both female and male. The institution has a more than 75% graduation rate, and most of the learners go on to meaningful careers, some as top leaders in America (Orchowski, 2008). The students are ranked, judged, and graded daily in three areas: physical fitness, military, and academic.


Hispanics in the US military have been at the forefront of promoting their culture through their lifestyle. Central to the investigation by Gaona (2002), dozens of local Latino leaders, such as retired Sgt. 1st Class Berto Soto have been organizing festivals, including Hispanic Heritage Month celebrations, to help build strong ties between Latino communities of Hampton Roads and the military. The leaders have been promoting the Hispanic culture by improving race relations outside the base, and they have achieved this in various ways, including starting a Latin music radio program on WHOV over the weekend (Gaona, 2002). In brief, most of the social and cultural activists came to Hampton roads via military assignment and felt a calling to become cultural ambassadors for their nations.

The participation of Hispanics in the US army is increasing faster compared to the overall engagement. For this reason, in September 1968, Congress permitted President Lyndon B. Johnson to declare National Hispanic Heritage Week (Prophet, 2007). In 1988, the observance was prolonged to a month-long festivity of the culture of US residents who trace their origin to Latin America and Spain. The starting point for the celebration was September 15, the anniversary of the independence of five Latin American nations: Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Costa Rica (Prophet, 2007). At the same time, Chile and Mexico celebrate their day of independence on September 18 and September 19, respectively (Prophet, 2007). All in all, this is an essential cultural celebration given that the number of Hispanic women and men joining the ranks is increasing with the voluntary military.

Table 2: Culture issues and related sources



A study by Segal, Thanner, and Segal (2007) shows that African Americans have served in the US military since the beginning of the All-Volunteer Force. The group has helped in numbers more significantly than their population percentage, particularly in the army. Arguably, this uneven representation has been exclusively evident among women in the military. At present, there has been a decline in the accession of African Americans. Besides making up an increasing segment of the US population, Hispanics have been underrepresented in the army, particularly among the officer corps (Segal et al., 2007). Currently, the mentioned population constitutes a more significant percentage of women in the military than men. In contrast to African Americans, Hispanics have been underrepresented in DOD, although their representation rates, especially within the enlisted ranks, differ among the services (Simmons, 2000). In the past two decades, transformations in the percentage of Hispanic women and men in the facility have been dramatic, whereby in the past 20 years, the rates have doubled (Segal et al., 2007). In part, the changes mirror the fact that Hispanics have met the military service education requirements and entrance exam over the past two decades.

The Hispanics have been experiencing histories of injustice in the U.S military. For example, retired Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, the highest-ranking Hispanic in the US military history, contends that the armed forces must rid itself of the injustices that bar Latinos from positions of authority (“Gen. Sanchez slams injustices to Hispanics in U.S. military” 2010). Lt. Gen. Sanchez has made it clear that the low expectations, prejudice, and stereotypes of Hispanics were deeply entrenched in the highest ranks. Hispanics are perceived to be educated, competent, and capable as any other segment of society, but for the last 75 years, there has been only one Latino officer on active duty with a four-star and three with three stars (“Gen. Sanchez slams injustices to Hispanics in U.S. military,” 2010). Therefore, recruiting challenges in attaining enlistment goals imply that the service needs to understand aspects impacting the promotion of demographic, in this case, Hispanics, to higher ranks.

A study by Rico (2003) advanced the notion that the Hispanic servicemen, in the early postwar years, returned to the US excited regarding their future, only to find the same segregation and prejudice as before. Army veteran Hector Perez-Garcia was unwilling to accept it and established the first Hispanic veterans’ organization, the American G.I Forum. The institution was set up in 1948, and since then, it has been fighting discrimination against Hispanic veterans in education, employment, and housing (Rico, 2003). Everybody is a brother and a sister when in the service, and they rely on each other. As such, the G.I Forum exists to ensure people get equal opportunity. Historically, the reason Hispanics choose life in the military has not changed that much. In this respect, Rico (2003) supported the hypothesis that Latinos go into the military seeking opportunity and adventure. All in all, the mentioned group has, time and again, been at the forefront of the nation, whereby most of them preferred service in the Army or Marines.


The comparatively high representation rate of top school-educated African Americans in the armed forces and the growth of enlisted Hispanics, including women, reflects the influence of the intersection of race/ethnicity, gender, and class on the dynamics of a labor market that produce the volunteer military. From conducting this research, one can learn that compared to their proportions in the total civilian population, the representation of Hispanics must consider the required qualifications for military service. Some examples include the ability of the family to afford college for the youngsters, the status of illegal immigrants, English proficiency, and education. The data has cited various reasons for the growth in Hispanic military accessions. For example, the size of the population of US Hispanic is growing, and their eligibility to serve, considering their aptitude test and educational criteria, has increased (Segal et al., 2007). Hence, the positive attitudes of Hispanics towards the army and their educational attainment imply that Hispanics should not be underrepresented in leadership positions but overrepresented.

From the reviewed literature, key findings have emerged that demonstrate how the military can attain officer quality and diversity, especially for the Hispanic population. Loving (2017) has shown that the service can increase the representation of Hispanics in senior leadership by ensuring they gain adequate training in military academies. For instance, the objective of the Naval Academy is to increase the student population of the group in question to approximately 12%, eventually increasing the number of Hispanic officers serving in the Marine Corps and Navy (Loving, 2017). At the same time, the United States Air force is outreaching into the communities, and from there, they make home visits, approach various high schools, and network with numerous Hispanic organizations, such as the National Council de La Raza. Finally, the emphasis of the United States Merchant Marine Academy is on informing Congresspeople about Hispanics and getting them to nominate the top ones.

The US military and the country have a growing Hispanic population. However, the group in question is still lagging in filling administrative positions in the nation and the army (Williams, 2013). The objective of establishing the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) was to conduct a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of practices and policies that shape diversity among leaders in the military. The most important findings are that the armed forces have taken notice and have, through its Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), implemented the Hispanic Access Initiative (HAI). The service has done so at universities and colleges categorized as Hispanic Serving Institutions (Mendoza, 2015). In this regard, the army’s objective has been to enlist more Hispanic Officers into its officer corps. From the data, it is apparent that the army can surge the number of Hispanics in senior leadership positions by creating executive training platforms, educating the inhabitants about potential barriers, introducing the value of making contacts, forming mentoring programs, and underlining higher education (Mora, 2015). Adopting such a suggestion would enable the Hispanic population to overcome barriers successfully and reach senior leaders.

Various gaps remain concerning how the military could attain diversity and officer quality focused on the emerging growth market, especially the Hispanic population. The reason, in this regard, is that the military service of Hispanics has received much less attention, whereas that of African Americans has been well scrutinized. Until the 1970s, Hispanics were not even identified by the Defense Manpower Data Center or the Census Bureau (Laurence & Matthews, 2012). The group in question has also gained much less coverage from military equal opportunity programs, which were initiated primarily in response to the inferior race association between African Americans and white service members. Nevertheless, regardless of the somewhat recent quantification of their military participation, Hispanics have served in every major conflict in America, like African Americans.

The finding of the current analysis is crucial for future research and practice. The findings shed new light on the actions that could improve the enlistment of Hispanics into senior leadership positions. The results from the data confirm that implementing policies that encourage improved educational achievement and high school graduation is one approach to increasing the pool of qualified Hispanics in senior military positions. Furthermore, the data has provided evidence that there is a need to recruit more intensely from among qualified individuals (Asch et al., 2009). In that way, the military would better understand how to meet the career desires of qualified Hispanics and improve the supply. The organization can achieve this by determining young people’s schooling and career choices by ethnicity/race as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. Finally, it would be challenging for the military to enlist more intensively from the pool of qualified Hispanics. Therefore, there is a need to relax recruiting standards since increasing representation among the Hispanic population would likely entail enlisting more marginal recruits.


All in all, Hispanics are represented disproportionately in the civilian and uniformed military defense workforce. Arguably, this is the case for lowest pay grades, where the group in question has the fewest opportunities and responsibilities. Although the US army has enjoyed the reputation of being a workforce that is most hospitable for minorities in the government, the state of affairs was not as bright for Hispanics. Citizenship requirements and low educational attainment often hold back Latinos who aspire to join the civilian and military ranks. Therefore, there is a need for increased remedial assistance and recruitment efforts for Hispanics who might not educationally make the grade.

Many young Latinos, especially men, are currently making a transition of joining the military in much higher numbers. The group in question has a stellar record in the army. The number of Hispanics who have, countrywide, enlisted in the Navy, Marines, Air force, and Army has plummeted dramatically over the last decade. However, such news is overshadowed by a more disturbing trend; a lack of Hispanics in senior military positions. The key to overcoming the mentioned challenge comes down to the following crucial dynamics: education, mentorship, recruiting more intensively from individuals who have qualified already, relaxing recruiting standards, and increasing the pool of individuals who are trained.


Asch, B. J., Buck, C., Klerman, J. A., Kleykamp, M., & Loughran, D. S. (2009). Military enlistment of Hispanic youth: Obstacles and opportunities. RAND Corporation, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Retrieved from ERIC Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/61910676?accountid=14665

Boyd, C. D. (2019). Differences in the perceptions and uses of veterans’ educational benefits as a function of Race/Ethnicity and gender: A national analysis (Order No. 27602968). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2320956991). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/2320956991?accountid=14665

Dempsey, J. K., & Shapiro, R. Y. (2008). The army Hispanic future. Armed Forces & Society35(3), 526–561. doi: 10.1177/0095327×08327821

Gaona, E. (2002, Oct 15). Hispanics make their presence known in the U.S. military. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/462010289?accountid=14665.

Gen. Sanchez slams injustices to Hispanics in U.S. military: US-MILITARY -Hispanics-. (2010, Sep 23). EFE News Service Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/752135176?accountid=14665

Kilburn, M. R. (1994). Minority representation in the united states military (Order No. 9419794). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304149348). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/304149348?accountid=14665

Kleykamp, M. A. (2007). Military service and minority opportunity (Order No. 3286966). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304823284). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/304823284?accountid=14665

Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and Challenges for Teaching Successful Online Courses in Higher Education. Journal of Educational Technology Systems46(1), 4–29. doi: 10.1177/0047239516661713

Lara, E. (2015). Don’t ask, don’t tell ’em about college: Brown portrait(ure) on the educational experiences of Chicano and Latino military veterans (Order No. 3728294). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1733694226). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/1733694226?accountid=14665

Laurence, J. H., & Matthews, M. D. (2012). The oxford handbook of military psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Loving, K. A. (2017). The effect of high school junior reserve officers’ training corps (JROTC) on Hispanic cadets’ civic knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Order No. 10600521). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1936390656). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/1936390656?accountid=14665

Mendoza, S. S. (2015). How the army Hispanic access initiative is helping Hispanic students graduate from college (Order No. 3738937). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1746941437). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/1746941437?accountid=14665

Mora, Esequiel J.,,Jr. (2015). Perspectives of Hispanic men who overcame the odds to become senior leaders (Order No. 3743589). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1757741524). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/1757741524?accountid=14665

Orchowski, P. S. (2008, Oct 20). Hispanics at west point excel – cadets among happiest college students in the U.S. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 19, 33. Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/219301331?accountid=14665

Press, A. (1999a, Jan 21). Hispanics on bottom rungs of the military workforce, group say: [final edition]. Las Vegas Review-Journal Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/260073090?accountid=14665.

Press, A. (1999b, Jan 21). Not many Hispanics in the military: [CITY edition]. Florida Times-Union Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/414041275?accountid=14665.

Prophet, T. (2007, Sep 30). Many Hispanics view the military as a tradition. McClatchy – Tribune Business News Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/462209314?accountid=14665.

Rico, G. (2003, Apr 12). HISPANICS IN THE MILITARY. Tucson Citizen Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/237104674?accountid=14665.

Segal, M. W., Thanner, M. H., & Segal, D. R. (2007). Hispanic and African American men and women in the U.S. military: trends in representation1. Race, Gender & Class, 14(3), 48-51,54-55,57-64. Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/218856691?accountid=14665

Simmons, J. (2000, Jan 28). DIVERSITY: Uncle sam wants usted! The military is actively seeking Hispanics. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 10, 8. Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/219305843?accountid=14665

Valenzuela, F., & Lemons, J. (2008). No greater love: The lives and times of Hispanic soldiers. Austin, TX: Ovation Books.

Williams, M. B. (2013). Racial and ethnic diversity in military leadership: A feasibility analysis of the military leadership diversity commission’s service academy accession recommendations (Order No. 3606514). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1492684381). Retrieved from http://echo.louisville.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.echo.louisville.edu/docview/1492684381?accountid=14665



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