Gender Parity and Inequality in Chile: A Bibliography

Cultural and Ethnic Studies

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A Bibliography of Gender Parity and Inequality in Chile

Avalos, Beatrice. “Gender Parity and Equality in Chile: A Case Study.” Background Paper for EFA Global Monitoring Report, vol. 2003, no. 4, 2003.

The article focuses on gender parity in the Chilean education sector and informs whether gender equality has been attained in the country. The author evaluates several factors to understand gender parity in education. Some determinants are years of schooling, literacy rates, and school enrolment. There is rampant discrimination against women in Chile, and this has affected their access to education. Hence, Avalos advises the country leadership to consider instituting new reforms to address female socio-economic problems. Besides, he states that there is a need for intensive awareness campaigns in the country to end gender inequality issues. Irrefutably, denying women access to education has been a critical hindrance in empowering them and has enhanced male dominance in Chilean society.

Haas, Liesl. “The Rules of the Game: Feminist Policymaking in Chile.” Política. Revista de Ciencia Política, vol. 46, 2006, pp. 199-225.

The article reveals that Chile has been making progress in women’s representation, allowing females to have a voice in the political arena. Despite this, female leaders have been fighting for gender parity issues and a greater political voice. Moreover, they have been at the forefront of the fight for democracy and the empowerment of vulnerable groups. However, gender parity issues remain a thorny issue in the country, disappointing feminist movements. Therefore, Liesl advocates for political pressure to compel leaders to adopt new reforms that would increase women’s participation in local and national politics.

Haas, Liesl. Feminist Policymaking in Chile. The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010.

The book by Liesl Haas reveals how feminists have been fighting for democracy in Chile. Fundamentally, there has been a concerted effort to fight for gender equality, and feminist movements have gained new ground. The 1990s were interesting times as Chile became a democracy. However, gender inequality has remained elusive to the disbelief of many women. Besides, the country has been relaxing strict laws, such as those on divorce and abortion, that discriminate against females. Currently, the government has continued to support the National Women’s Service (Sernam), promote gender parity concerns, and ensure that their issues are handled appropriately.

Mesa‐Lago, Carmelo. “Social Protection in Chile: Reforms to Improve Equity.” International Labour Review, vol. 147, no. 4, 2008, pp. 377-402.

The author of this article uses data from the 1970s and 1980s to reveal the strategic steps that Chilean society has taken to improve gender equity. In the past, significant equality issues have been noted in income, employment, and political participation. The write-up reveals that the state has been working hard to reduce poverty and address other social issues. Discrimination against women has been a chronic problem in the country, blamed on dismal labour participation. High gender inequality has been reported in the private sector, where the government has minimal control and oversight.

Power, Margaret. Right-wing Women in Chile: Feminine Power and the Struggle against Allende, 1964-1973. Penn State Press, 2010.

The book draws readers’ attention by narrating Chile’s heroic struggle for gender parity problems. The author indicates that there are significant prejudices that limit women’s participation in politics. Besides, she states that females are unwilling to share valuable information that politicians can use to introduce new reforms that can change the country. Power illustrates that women are important government players and have a role in promoting discussion to improve governance. Accordingly, the book uses numerous examples in the quest to empower female leaders and encourage their political aspirations and actions.

Roemhildt, Lisa. “Understanding Women’s Representation in Chile.” Journal of Undergraduate Research, 2016.

The author highlights the tremendous role women have played in shaping Chilean democracy. For example, the country elected its first female president, who also won a second term. The write-up addresses the issue of gender disparity based on cultural, social, and historical background. Historically, many women have faced discrimination and have been denied fundamental rights. Fortunately, many Chileans have supported women’s representation, and this new wave of democracy will eradicate gender inequality shortly.

Silke, Staab and Georgina Waylen. “Gender, Institutions, and Change in Bachelet’s Chile.” ECPR Joint Sessions, 2014.

The authors pinpoint that males dominate Chile’s prominent leadership positions. However, this situation has been changing due to social and political reforms that have revealed the importance of women’s empowerment. Moreover, feminists have intensified their struggle for equality, which has borne fruit in business and politics. Therefore, the journal article demonstrates the progress that can be attained by improving gender parity concerns, especially in decision-making. Therefore, gender inequality is gaining traction in Chile, and certainly, the future is bright for females.

Tagle, Javiera Errázuriz. “Discourses on Women’s Suffrage in Chile 1865-1949.” Historia (Santiago), vol. 1.SE, 2006.

The journal article expounded on the issue of women’s suffrage and its revolutionary impact on Chile. Ideally, the author intended to assess this topic by analyzing the masculine and feminine speeches delivered between 1865 and 1949. Feminists were keen on civil justification, and it was clear that they had to be granted the right to vote to realize their goals. Generally, Women have suffered historical injustices that have denied them the right to participate in governance issues. Despite progress, negative societal structures have continued to encourage discrimination against women. For instance, the author highlights the domestic roles assigned to women and other duties affecting females for a long time. Besides, Religion has also been blamed for deciding which roles women should play, for instance, in the subject of maternity.

Varas, Miguel Ángel López, and Ricardo Gamboa Valenzuela. “Women’s Suffrage in Chile: Origen, Gender Gap, and Stability 1935-2009.” Revista de Estudios Sociales, vol. 53, 2015, pp. 124-137.

The authors intended to explain the concept of women’s suffrage in Chile and describe how this changed in the 20th and 21st centuries. Quantitative analysis was used to evaluate Chilean society’s strategic actions and fundamental changes. The article refutes past claims that women’s participation in elections increased electoral instability. In the past, the gender gap was a blessing to right-wing candidates and propelled reformists to influential political positions. Without a doubt, women have been making considerable progress, and their participation in the political stage has improved the discourse on gender parity concerns. Chile has undergone radical changes, and luckily, society has progressed by empowering female leaders.

Vives, Alejandra, et al. “Gender and Ageing at Work in Chile: Employment, Working Conditions, Work-Life Balance and Health of Men and Women in an Ageing Workforce.” Annals of Work Exposures and Health, vol. 62, no. 4, 2018, pp. 475-489.

In detail, the authors disclosed that women are disadvantaged in the Chilean labour system. The article compares labour participation among males and females of a certain age. The results pinpointed many dangers that old Chileans face while working in various companies. Alejandra Vives notes that women tend to suffer more than men due to the available work systems. Therefore, the government must introduce new measures to protect seniors who opt to work despite retirement age. Furthermore, health problems are a key concern regarding senior citizens; unfortunately, many have been injured at the workplace due to poor health.

Wu, Ruohan, and Xueyu Cheng. “Gender Equality in the Workplace: The Effect of Gender Equality on Productivity Growth among the Chilean Manufacturers.” The Journal of Developing Areas, vol. 50, no. 1, 2016, pp. 257-274.

The peer-reviewed journal focused on gender inequality in Chile, primarily in the manufacturing sector. The authors analyze data collected between 2001 and 2007 and observe that most workers in this sector are males. The manufacturing industry has low female participation, and at times, this has been blamed for low productivity. Notably, gender inequality has become an important topic in Chile, and there have been significant efforts to improve equality. Besides, some firms have reported unequal benefits, becoming a source of conflict in the workplace. Gender equality is a fundamental aspect that has made the business successful and productive. Hence, the article highlights the need for more Chilean women to join high-skill jobs in the manufacturing sector to increase their participation in the industry. The country has been making progressive steps to empower women and raise their voices in the workplace.


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