Environmental Pollution; Flora and Fauna (Focused on Wound Care) 

Environmental studies and Forestry

Write on ” Environmental pollution of flora and fauna,” and concentrate on wound care.

Environmental Pollution; Flora and Fauna (Focused on Wound Care)

Contusions are caused by injuries to the skin, which, in turn, disrupt the other soft tissues. Healing the bruise is a protracted and complicated process of remodelling and repairing the flesh in response to the lesion. To this end, nature provides a continuous source of medicinal products. For instance, some plants and herbs have a collection of phytoconstituents with diverse biological effects, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, which are crucial to handle a wound (Marume et al., 2017). On the other hand, some animals also serve as agents that offer a natural remedy to induce healing. For example, Channa striatus, a freshwater fish commonly spread in Malaysia, is regarded as a remedy that promotes the process (Haniffa et al., 2015). Of particular concern, environmental pollution, which entails the introduction of harmful contaminants into the soil, water, and air, presents dire consequences to the mentioned flora and fauna in various ways.

Air Pollution

The above-raised issue has caused widespread damage to vegetation, such as flowers, vegetables, fruits, and trees, that have medicinal value for treating wounds. One of the deceptive detriments therein is their destruction by sulfur dioxide; when the absorption of this chemical reaches the saturation level, the cells are killed and become inactive, leading to the drying of leaves and tissue collapse. Fluorides also cause different kinds of injuries to flora. For instance, the element seems to affect its process of respiration and photosynthesis. More so, the formation of acid rain is conceivably the most toxic effluence. The point is that during rainfall, the compounds in the downpour often destroy leaves, kill trees, and infiltrate the soil, making it unsuitable for habitation and nutrition purposes. The effects can occur at various levels, ranging from plant communities to vegetal organs and cells (Molina & Sokhi, 2011).

The animals are also susceptible to the detriment of air pollution. The issues of concern are persistent organic contaminants, heavy metals, and acid rain. The contamination affects the habitat of animals, including water and soil. The acid rain can, subsequently, change the quality and chemistry of the mentioned surroundings. For instance, water bodies can become too acidic to have standard physiological functions or for some species to survive. Alternatively, the heavy shower also releases heavy metals, such as aluminium, into the habitats. Furthermore, other air pollution methods, such as ground-level ozone, particulate matter, and smog, harm the cardiovascular systems and lungs of animals. The vulnerability of wildlife to toxic waste is influenced by how they breathe, whether through the passive diffusion across the skin surface, gills, or lungs. The visible effect of air pollution is ecological function impairment (Molina & Sokhi, 2011).

Soil Pollution

According to Osman (2013), the mentioned effluence transpires when the accumulation of an element, either introduced or native, is concentrated in the ground at a level that is detrimental to the health and growth of various species, including animals, plants and microorganisms. Therefore, although some of these substances are naturally present, anthropogenic and geologic events increase their concentration to harmful degrees. Some of these actions include municipal waste disposal, sewage sludge, application of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture, burning of fossil fuels, and smelting of metal and mining.

In plants, the recorded effects include reduced growth due to changes in the biochemical and physiological processes. More so, the vegetation suffers from a continued decline in its growth, which, in turn, reduces yield. Due to oxidative stress, the damage to cell structures and inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes are some of the direct toxic consequences caused by elements, such as high metal concentration. Pollution of the soil negatively disturbs the metabolism of arthropods and microorganisms; consequently, it harms predator animal species and destroys some layers of the primary food chain. More often, the small forms of life in the ground ingest these dangerous elements, which eventually go up the food chain to larger animals. In this case, the outcomes may be animal extinction and increased mortality rates. Thus, the contamination of the soil is a global problem since it affects both plants and animals by harming the life of microorganisms (Osman, 2013).

Water Pollution

Some causes of the mentioned issue include the following: the release of hot water into rivers by power plants, oil spills from tankers into oceans, excessive use of detergents, dumping of various animals, including dead ones, into the water, excessive application of fertilizer, and disposal of sewage waste. In this regard, the contamination damages or kills the animals and plants living in this habitat. The pollution therein also leads to abnormal vegetation growth when used for irrigation (Paul, n.d.). For instance, marine impurity severely affects aquatic plants. Some seaweeds, including water hyacinth and aquatic ferns, increase in such areas.

Similarly, the plethora of moss present in such water blocks the sunlight from reaching the depths of the sea; thus, it affects the process of photosynthesis, which, in turn, hampers the growth of aquatic plants. Then, marine creatures also suffocate as a consequence of water pollution, the reason therein being that the toxic waste reduces the level of oxygen The most affected, in this case, are different varieties of fish, including Channa striatus, which is a remedy for wound healing. Another adverse effect concerns the breeding power of aquatic life. To this end, the ability of both plants and marine animals to reproduce and regenerate becomes deficient. The animals on land also fall prey to dangerous diseases by drinking contaminated water (“Effects of Water Pollution,” 2018).

Conclusion

In summary, environmental pollution has dire consequences for flora and fauna; in this case, those that are a source of medicine for wound care. One clear example is the Channa striatus, which is endowed with the extraordinary capability of healing an injury. More so, plants such as Cissus Quadrangularis are also beneficial in managing broken and dislocated bones and contusions. The nutritional values of these products are outstanding and contribute to the claimed properties of wound care. However, there is a reduction in their growth due to toxic waste in the environment. For this reason, it is important to adopt measures to ensure the surrounding, including soil, water, and air, is protected. The action would be achieved through waste reduction, pollution prevention programs, and conservation. More so, the government needs to promote a way of living that is good for ecological protection, and they should reinforce the education of robust waste environment effluence preclusion.

References

Effects of Water Pollution on Humans, Animals, and Plants. (2018, January 22). Retrieved from http://www.indiacelebrating.com/environmental-issues/effects-of-water-pollution/.

Haniffa, M. A., Sheela, P. A., Kavitha, K., & Jais, A. M. (2015, March 20). Salutary value of haruan, the striped snakehead Channa striatus – a review. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169115302318.

Marume, A., Matope, G., Katsande, S., Star, K., Mutingwende, I., Mduluza, T., . . . & Ndhlala, A. (2017, August 04). Wound healing properties of selected plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00544/full.

Molina, M., & Sokhi, R. S. (2011). World atlas of atmospheric pollution. London: Anthem Press.

Osman, K. T. (2013). Soil degradation, conservation, and remediation. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media.

Paul, A. (n.d.). Living sci. Bio. 6 (Col.Ed.). Delhi: Ratna Sagar.


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