Compare and contrast the ideas from the Central American readings attached and with whatChasteen said in the book Blood and Fire. Answer questions from Chapters 5-11. Paragraphresponse to each question 5-6 sentences. Use examples from these readings and make you compare and contrast when asked. Study Questions for Chasteen, Blood, and Fire (2016) compared with […]
20. the newly formed independent Latin American countries faced the problem of civil war in the 1830s. The war led to massive damage to property and civil unrest, and loss of life (Pollack). They also lacked nation-building ideas as the leaders lacked experience and, as a result, relied on one ruler. For instance, El Salvador and Guatemala lacked effective leadership, and military leaders took advantage and ruled over them. Furthermore, in war-affected agriculture in Guatemala and Costa Rica, many farmers became soldiers and had no time for farming.
21. The new generation of liberals in central America failed because it was challenging to implement a hierarchical government in a mostly-conservative society. Additionally, the liberal ideas excluded indigenous people as they were conservative. For instance, Guatemala’s liberal policies put land for resale. This idea was not received well by the natives and instead received a widespread rejection.
22. Caudillo’s leadership in Spanish America led to turbulence in early Spanish America because they controlled land and armed forces. The leadership was vested in a dictatorship and became unpopular among the people. The main caudillo in Guatemala was Rafael Carrera, who ruled the country from 1844 to 1848 and 1851 to 1865 (Pollack). In Honduras, the main caudillo was Tiburcio Carias Andino, who became president in 1924 and 1933-1949. He imposed a strong military dictatorial rule which became unpopular among the people.
23. early Brazil did not experience military rule, while Central America experienced massive military rule. In Brazil, plantation agriculture was prosperous because of relative peace and able leadership, while in Central America, agriculture had been depleted due to civil unrest. Moreover, the Portuguese King declared Brazil’s independence while the people fought for independence in Central America. There were minimal wars in Brazil, while there were widespread civil wars in Central American countries. Additionally, Central America lacked enough resources to spearehead internal development while Brazil had enough resources due to a flourishing agriculture sector.
24. Social injustice and racism became widespread due to the establishment of racialized-social governance. This was witnessed by excluding indigenous communities from the government, which was treated unequally. There was also land misappropriation, where some people got a lot of lands while others were denied access to land. Moreover, there was a social class where some members of society were wealthy while the majority were poor. Additionally, indigenous cultural beliefs were despised while the European religion, Christianity, was embraced.
25. Only leaders at the top benefitted from the economic progress in Latin America. Although the governments got massive support from the people, indigenous people were excluded. Similarly, the situation was the same in Central America as those in leadership benefitted from the economic gains (Williams). Furthermore, the two regions were similar as some parts were developed while some, especially those occupied by indigenous people, were not developed. Overall, top leadership benefitted from the economic progress made in the two regions.
26. Steamships introduced by Europeans replaced wooden ships. Land transport was improved by introducing the railroad powered by steam, thereby improving human movement. Telegraph lines also improved communication between people from different places. Several railroads were constructed and linked many towns, thereby accelerating the movement of goods and people. Overall, the development in the Mid-19th century resulted in improved road and water transport, making goods and human movement easy.
27. There was a fall in democratic progress as leaders became more dictatorial. However, governance improved because there was order. Governments also increased taxation to fund public projects. War was also made easy as troops could be transported to areas experiencing war, thereby increasing government control and order. Moreover, the transport revolution led to economic growth and market increase while opening the country’s interior.
28. because the church became more conservative, it faced opposition from liberals. As a result, the church and conservatives lost government control in the country. However, Napoleon supported the conservatives and promised to help them regain power. However, the process was different in Central America because leaders did not allow liberalism to triumph because it threatened their power. As a result, they fought any attempt to overthrow the government through liberal reforms.
29. Though education expanded, women did not benefit as they were condemned to home life. The main objective of education and empowerment was not to uplift women and change the social hierarchy but to gain independence. Furthermore, progress did not improve indigenous communities and the people of African descent. Indigenous people and African descent were sidelined from education and economic activity. This is because they were seen as slaves and not equal to other races.
30. Export boom in Latin America led to economic growth in the region. For instance, roads and markets were constructed to accommodate economic growth needs. The export boom in Central America differed from Latin America because leaders were the major beneficiaries of the progress. Additionally, too much government control discouraged people from producing more. Comparatively, Latin America and Central America experienced rapid growth during the export boom.
31. The major commodities exported from Latin America were sugar, coffee, copper, bananas, and wheat. Immigrants majorly produced these goods because they provided cheap labor. The new immigrants from Europe altered the demographic picture by providing white genes to change to improve race. This was a racist strategy to get rid of native and African races. In Central America, Europeans came to take over economic opportunities and not to alter the demographic picture.
32. Dictatorial governments arose to control neocolonial Latin America. Leaders established totalitarian rules and strong governments to control the newly independent countries. Similarly, dictatorial and socialist governments arose in Central America, especially in Cuba. The dictatorship was preferred to discourage people from forming and rising against the government. This form of rule continued for several decades.
33. scientific racism functioned by informing the whites that their genes were superior to others. The idea behind this was to create racial lines to control people easily. For example, blacks and indigenous people were sidelined in the Central African countries. This strategy led to increased hate which continues to the present day. Therefore, scientific racism was aimed at creating a division for an easy rule.
34. Britain had control of a large section of Latin America. On the other hand, the USA started controlling Latin America after 1890, when British rule ended. France also controlled some sections of Latin America. This control led to different rules in the postcolonial era through the legacies they left behind. For instance, the USA left the racialized rule that cut across races.
35. Nationalist politics rejuvenated the idea of self-rule after 1929. Leaders wanted to champion a political course that was nationalist in nature to encourage massive support. The nationalist ideology of race in Central America aimed at thwarting the idea of scientific racism by encouraging equality.
36. Import Substitution Industrialization played a central role in South America because it led to economic growth. Roads and communication were improved, and this informed new thinking. While on the other hand, Central America did not embrace the ideology of Import Substitution Industrialization because leaders concentrated on consolidating power. There was continuous civil unrest that derailed economic growth.
37. Nationalists appeared as revolutionaries because of their radical ideologies. Nationalists often called for total control of governments. Moreover, nationalism in central America was right because it was majorly led by conservation. Leaders wanted to conserve their economic, social, and political power for their own benefit. As a result, the nationalist appeared as revolutionaries because they wanted strong governments.
38. Leaders such as Cardenas, Vergas, and Peron were characterized by populist leadership styles. They aimed to be popular among the people and win massive support. Such leaders also existed in Central America. They included leaders such as Daniel Ortega, and Velasco Ibarra emerged. These leaders championed populist rule to consolidate their control.
39. The Great Depression made Latin America become dependent on the US’s assistance. World War Two also devasted Latin and Central American economies and increased dependency on the United States. The United States was not primarily affected because it had a well-functioning economy that other countries relied on. Therefore, the United States and Latin and Central America grew their relations during the great depression and World War Two.
Pollack, Aaron. “From Kingdom to Republics, 1808–1838.” The Oxford Handbook of Central American History.
Williams, Robert G. “Political Economy of Central America from 1840 to 2019.” The Oxford Handbook of Central American History.
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Published On: 01-01-1970