A Nation Without Borders by Steven Hahn Chapter Review From the late 1860s to the 1920s, the United States developed into a modern, industrial, urbanized society. What are two specific topics that reflect how the nation was transformed and how these transformations impacted certain groups of people? In other words, what are two specific topics […]
During the American Civil War, the United States society experienced a devastating period of economic and social degradation. During the war, the conflicting parties used huge amounts of American resources to enhance their military superiority and increase their chance of winning the war. Asa result, the American Civil War hindered economic growth in the country, which exposed members to strain. After the war was called off in 1865, efforts were put in place to restore economic, social, and political stability in America. The book “A nation without borders: The United States and its world in an age of civil wars, 1830-1910” by Steven Hahn provides a summary of key events that marked the downfall and the consequent restoration of the American social, political, and economic stability during and after the American Civil War. Its eleventh and twelfth chapters reflect how the nation was transformed and how such transformation affected lives among different groups in society. This study seeks to assess the information presented by the two topics concerning significant changes that occurred in the United States between 1960 and 1920. The two chapters address strategies put in place to bring about social and economic restoration in America.
The eleventh chapter presents details concerning strategies put in place by the government to restore the nation’s economic stability and how members of society reacted to such changes. To increase government revenue and support development in the country, policymakers were forced to raise taxes and cut wages for workers. For instance, in 1877, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) reduced wages for workers in the strive to increase revenue (Hahn). The event triggered the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, during which workers went on strike and could not allow any train to roll until the railway board revoked the wage cut. The period was also marked by high levels of competition in the labor market. Immigration was identified as the main contributing factor to increased unemployment rates among Americans. In the strive to address unemployment to improve the economic and social well-being among the indigenous communities, policymakers implemented regulations to ban the hiring of both skilled and unskilled immigrant laborers. In 1882, Chester Arthur signed a bill banning the immigration of Chinese laborers for a decade (Hahn). Such regulations inspired racial segregation among communities in American society, while immigrants were exposed to mistreatment and discrimination from most communities. Therefore, the chapter describes the social and political issues that were ensured in American society following implementing policies meant to stimulate the country’s economic stability.
The twelfth chapter focuses on strategies put in place to bring about social reconstruction in the United States. After the imposition of policies restricting immigration, American society experienced an increased rate of social issues such as racism and class stratification. Communities such as African Americans, Chinese, and Mexicans fell victim to racism as they were perceived as a threat to the economic well-being of the indigenous communities. As a result, members of such communities were denied access to employment opportunities, healthcare services, and representation in government (Hahn). As the communities submitted their complaints to the government, policies were developed to address the issue of racism in the United States. Previously established regulations that sought to bring about racial equality, such as abolitionists, were amended to increase efficiency. Also, as the number of working women in the United States grew, they formed unions to demand their right to equality and representation in leadership positions. Consequently, the government was compelled to develop policies to address gender equality in society.
Moreover, many workers were exposed to hostile working conditions as industries continued to expand after implementing economic restoration strategies. Asa result, workers in various industries formed unions to demand their rights. in response to the existing conflict between workers and their employers, the government developed policies to regulate how employees were treated in the workplace. For instance, the Philadelphia Working Women’s Society was instituted to campaign for the rights of working women and alleviate the social injustices they were exposed to (Hahn). Additionally, as the nation regained its economic stability, a widening gap emerged between the rich and the poor. Consequently, some members of society led luxurious lives while others suffered in extreme poverty. Therefore, the government set up regulations to promote economic equality in the United States to address social issues faced by less fortunate individuals. Therefore, the twelfth chapter describes efforts put in place to bring about a social reconstruction in America.
The eleventh and twelfth chapters of the book address the social and economic restoration of post-war American society. The eleventh chapter presents details concerning strategies put in place by the government to restore the nation’s economic stability and how members of society reacted to such changes. It describes how unemployment was addressed to improve the economic and social well-being of the indigenous communities. The twelfth chapter focuses on strategies put in place to bring about social reconstruction in the United States.
Hahn, Steven. A nation without borders: the United States and its World in an Age of Civil Wars, 1830-1910. Penguin, 2016.
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Published On: 01-01-1970